REF: I. Alhajri, B.M.Goortani, Concentrated Solar Thermal Cogeneration a Promising Source of Energy for ZLD Sea Water Desalination in the Middle East, Desalination and Water Treatment, 226, pp.1-8, (2021)
There exist processes for sea water desalination and in-situ its required heat and power generation. Solar thermal technologies can be either applied directly as a heat source or indirectly to produce high pressure steam and generate heat and electrical energy, thereof. Design and development of water desalination technologies in the Middle East with respect to its particular geographic and weather conditions is the main challenge addressed in this study. Reverse Osmosis in series with the thermal methods is applied for this purpose to prevent the environmental impacts of the conventional methods, including the release of green gases and releasing saline water back into the sea. A design procedure is presented to calculate the equipment size and process parameters in concentrated solar thermal cogeneration and desalination plant with zero liquid discharge. The available hourly solar irradiance data in Kuwait are directly applied in the design, in this case study. Based on the minimum available solar fuel in the first day of winter, a total reflectors' surface area of 2,670,000 m2 in the desalination plant with a production capacity of 400,000 m3/day and 865,000 m3/day for winter and summer, respectively, with a total heat storage of 85,500 tons molten salt is calculated.
Keywords: Desalination; solar thermal; cogeneration; solar irradiance; design